# Six Sigma Green Belt

Improves efficiency, reduces waste, and increase quality in business

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Lean **Six Sigma** is a process management method that improves efficiency, reduces waste, and increases quality in business. Process management uses collaborative team effort and statistical analysis to measure and eliminate the root causes of variability and defects rather than guesswork.

Lean Six Sigma is used by all types of organizations, industries, and services to improve performance, raise employee and customer satisfaction, and increase profits.

The Six Sigma Green Belt is a team leader who works in support of, or under the supervision of, a Six Sigma Black Belt. He or she analyzes and solves quality problems and is involved in quality improvement projects.

### Prerequisites

These courses are a tremendous opportunity for you to learn skills that are needed for employment in growing industries across the country. Your participation in these courses is a unique opportunity for you to set a path for success on your career journey.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Understand the value of this educational opportunity
- Define the three steps to greatness
- Explain the importance of certifications

The first page of a course is always the objectives page. The objectives page introduces the course and lists the learning objectives of the course.

This course explains how a course is structured and how you can interact with the course.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Describe the different sections of the screen in a course
- Understand how to navigate through a course
- Explain how to use a knowledge check
- Describe how to use a drag and drop activity
- Describe how to use an input box activity

The learning management system (LMS) allows you to easily navigate your online education. Using the LMS, you can access learning paths, study guides, and assessments.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Understand how to use the LMS
- Explain how to launch a course
- Describe how to take an assessment

An online course is a great way to learn, but it is different from taking a class in a classroom. This course provides tips to help you succeed in an online learning environment.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Set a study schedule
- List tips for retaining the information you have studied
- List tips for taking quizzes

### Foundational Programs

Six Sigma is the structured, disciplined pursuit of near perfection in the products or services an organization produces.

It is based on statistical techniques and tools, and attempts to improve an organization’s bottom line by eliminating the variation in business processes that can result in defects.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Define the origins of Six Sigma
- Recognize why organizations use Six Sigma
- Explain how they apply its philosophy and goals
- Describe how process inputs, outputs, and feedback impact the larger organization
- Recognize key drivers for business and how key metrics and scorecards are developed
- Describe the project selection process
- Explain when to use Six Sigma improvement methodology as opposed to other problem-solving tools
- Explain how a project supports and is linked to organizational goals

Lean principles are designed to help an organization achieve process perfection. The foundation of lean principles are employee involvement, adding the maximum value, and the elimination of waste. Lean is a journey toward understanding the customer and their needs.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define and describe the concepts of lean, including pull and perfection
- Define and describe the elimination of waste using tools like 5S, kaizen, and poke-yoke
- Use a value stream map to identify waste
- Explain value
- Define value, value-added, and non-value-added
- Identify the terms used to describe waste
- Describe the theory of constraints

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is an application of Six Sigma that encompasses the product design and redesign processes. DFSS makes certain that the voice of the customer is built into every new product and service.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Describe how quality function deployment fits into the overall DFSS process
- Define the purpose of the QFD
- Create a QFD matrix
- Explain the purpose of process and design failure mode and effects analyses (PFMEA and DFMEA)
- Calculate the RPN value for a PFMEA and DFMEA
- Explain the differences between a PFMEA and a DFMEA

### Fundamental Programs

A Six Sigma project often requires a large amount of time from many people, and can be quite costly to the organization. The define portion of the DMAIC continuous improvement model provides the information and tools necessary to identify the issue causing decreased customer satisfaction, and to ensure the project will be a value-added activity.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Define components of processes
- Define process boundaries
- Describe the difference between internal and external customers
- Define process owner
- Define process stakeholder
- List some means of identifying customers
- Identify means for collecting customer data

Basic project management techniques are key contributors to the success of a Six Sigma project. Creating a project charter and performing risk analysis during the define phase helps a Six Sigma project stay on target and addresses potential risks.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- List the contents of a project charter
- Define problem statement
- Define purpose
- Define benefits
- Define scope
- Define results
- State the benefit of project risk analysis

The success of a Six Sigma project depends on accurately identifying the current state of a process, and then assessing the problems within the process. A number of management and planning tools are available for this purpose.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Define affinity diagram
- Define interrelationship diagraph
- Define tree diagram
- Define prioritization matrix
- Define PDPC
- Define activity network diagram
- Define matrix diagram
- Identify types and uses of matrix diagrams

To complete the define phase of a Six Sigma project, it’s necessary to be able to assess its performance. Business results are measurements of performance that can be applied to the business, project, or process.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Define Defects per Unit (DPU)
- Define Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)
- Define Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
- Describe sigma level
- Describe process capability indices

To be successful, a Six Sigma project must be executed by an effective team. Teams evolve over time, passing through definite phases of evolution until they find their place in the organization’s Six Sigma structure.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Define and describe the stages of team evolution
- List the different roles in a Six Sigma team
- Define brainstorming
- Define nominal group technique
- Define multivoting

A wide variety of tools exist for use in the define phase of a Six Sigma project. Each tool can provide insight into an organization’s processes and help with the development of a good project plan.

By the end of this course, you will be able to:

- Surveys
- Focus groups
- Interviews
- Audits
- Cause and effect diagrams
- Check sheets
- Graphical charts
- Sampling plans
- Advanced Quality Planning (AQP)
- Benchmarking
- Force field analysis
- Gantt charts
- Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)/Critical Path Method (CPM)

The measure portion of the DMAIC methodology provides a Six Sigma team with the tools needed to focus the project on possible causes of problems and solutions to those causes.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Identify and review process maps, written procedures, and work instructions
- Identify process input variables and process output variables
- Recognize the relationships between input variables and output variables

In today’s business world, companies cannot remain competitive if they must measure every product’s weight, colour, size, strength, and any other characteristic 100 percent. Organizations use probability and statistics to measure samples of a product and provide mathematical proof of the quality of the product or process.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define probability
- Describe and apply probability concepts
- Define statistics
- List statistical parameters
- Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics
- Distinguish between a population parameter and a sample statistic
- Define a central limit theorem and its significance in statistics

To improve a process or product it is important to know its current status and its status after improvements are made. Valid data must be collected and summarized to verify the status of the process or product.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Identify continuous or variable data
- Identify discrete or attribute data
- Describe and define nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio measurement scales
- Define and apply methods for collecting data
- Define and apply techniques such as random sampling, stratified sampling, and sample homogeneity
- Depict relationships by constructing, applying, and interpreting diagrams and charts

A random experiment or sample can result in different outcomes. The probability that each outcome will occur can be calculated and charted using different probability distributions.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Describe and interpret normal, binomial, Poisson, t, chi square, and F distributions
- Identify formulas for calculating the probability of data values of different probability distributions

Data often consists of measurements of characteristics or conditions. A measurement system analysis is necessary to identify measurement variation and distinguish between measurement and process variation.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define measurement system analysis
- Identify and conduct gauge repeatability and reproducibility studies
- Define measurement terms including sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and linearity

A main goal of a Six Sigma project is to reduce variation in a process. To meet this goal, the Six Sigma team must know the capability and performance of the process before and after improvements are implemented.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Describe the process of conducting a process capability study
- Distinguish between natural process limits and specification limits
- Define and calculate process capability indices
- Define and calculate process performance indices
- Describe the differences between short-term and long-term capability

Before any problem can be eliminated or controlled, the cause of the problem must be identified and confirmed. Six Sigma teams use statistical tools to perform an analysis of data to identify and confirm the variable that causes most variation in a process or product.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Create and interpret multi-vari studies
- Identify the differences between positional, cyclical, and temporal variations
- Identify the largest source of variation in a process using a multi-vari study
- Interpret the linear correlation coefficient
- Determine the statistical significance of a linear correlation coefficient
- Identify the equation for linear regression

Hypotheses tests are statistical methods of making decisions on the results of a study to determine if the results are truly related, or if they occur by chance. Hypotheses tests differ in the results they produce and what information is required, but they all share some basic terms and concepts.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define and distinguish between statistical significance and practical significance
- Apply tests for significance level, power, and type I and type II errors
- Define null and alternative hypotheses
- List acceptable null and alternative hypotheses for statistical parameters
- Determine appropriate sample size for various tests
- Define confidence levels and confidence intervals
- Calculate confidence intervals for population parameters

Six Sigma teams must understand the difference between the types of hypotheses tests to determine the proper test for the problem. Selection of the proper test is determined by the statistical parameter to be tested and the available information from the sample data.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- List common hypotheses tests
- Define and describe paired-comparison hypotheses tests
- Define terms related to one-way ANOVAs and interpret their results and data plots
- Define and interpret chi-square and use it to determine statistical significance

Properly designed experiments are essential to improving a Six Sigma project and making the project successful.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define terms associated with the design of experiments
- Interpret main effects of a factor
- Interpret interaction plots

Statistical Process Control, or SPC, is a quality control methodology that uses statistics to predict variation in processes. SPC is the basis for the control portion of a Six Sigma project.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define statistical process control
- Define and describe the objectives and benefits of statistical process control
- Explain the types of variation that exist in a process
- Define and describe how rational subgrouping is used
- Identify, select, construct, and apply various control charts
- Interpret various control charts

Improvements to a process are almost always needed to meet the goals of an organization. Many Six Sigma tools can be used to implement and validate the improvements.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- List the steps to improve a process
- Identify Six Sigma tools used to improve a project
- Identify Six Sigma tools used to validate improvement efforts

The control plan is one of the most important documents used to maintain the gains made during the analysis and improve portions of a Six Sigma project. The control plan is a “living” document that is continually updated to capture continuing improvements.

By the end of this course, you will be able to

- Define the minimum requirements for a control plan
- List sources of information for a control plan
- List required documents based on a control plan
- Define a dynamic control plan